// LIQUIDLOOP

Our product is a versatile and complete test & analysis system


Core LIQUIDLOOP product is our PoGASi - Product-to-Gas-interface, a bridge between liquid reaction environment and ultra high vacuum system coupled to mass spectrometry for detection and analysis.

Our differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) encompasses all necessary features for successful data extraction and interpretation.

It is unique on the current market, based on technical solutions proven in a decade of research in the field of catalysis and tailored to the requirements of electrochemists.

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Modular design

Over the years of experience in competitive scientific research environment, we have learnt to appreciate versatile, flexible and upgradable instruments.

Modular approach in design of our products enables our customers to shape their system according to their current needs and leaves plenty of options for upgrades in the future.

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Hardware units

Product-to-Gas-interface (PoGASi)

The patented LIQUIDLOOP PoGASi consists of a sophisticated differential vacuum pumping with dual turbo molecular pumping station with a possibility to use a triple vacuum pumping stage with a scroll pump, relevant for high gas stream demands.It sets adjustable, sample dependent, yet stable and constant vacuum pressure at the interface with the extractor.​

The PoGASi performs simultaneous separation and delivery to the mass spectrometer analyzer of the gas-phase and volatile liquid-phase reaction products from a liquid matrix (sample), allowing researchers insight into the real-time data without any diffusion-caused delays of certain compounds.​

Independent pathways of gaseous and volatile liquid compounds post separation leave  the possibility to shut down either of the analyte types for  improved qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Electrolyte flow system (FlowSys 1.2)

The electrolyte flow system is a separate hardware unit in the LIQUIDLOOP DEMS system. Its main role is to support the tunable saturation of electrolyte with the reactant gases and the set the required low flux rates through the electrochemical cell and the extractor. Aqueous as well as non-aqueous solvents and electrolytes may both safely be used in the FlowSys 1.2 device. ​​

Features of FlowSys 1.2:

•   saturation of the reactant gas achieved without bubbles formation, typically giving rise to unstable baselines in mass spectrometry analysis.

•    tunable reactant gas saturation (range 0-100 % saturation) of the electrolyte can be achieved.

•    long-term operation (dependent on the reservoir volume: max. 2000 mL @ 10 uL/sec = 55 hours operation) with stable MS baseline.

•    upgradable for mixture of gases with simple add-on accessories

•    this system produces a microflow (1-20 uL/sec) of electrolyte running over the electrode surface, from which the analytes are sampled directly in liquid phase.

•    The analyte collection inlet system uses a standard capillary tube plug-in, offering versatility regarding use of various cells and devices

Electrochemical cells
Capillary cell

•  ​large volume flow cell allowing for high current density reactions (ex.: up to 50 mA.cm-2 (geom) in aqueous electrolyte for CO2RR at 5 mV.s-1 )

•  variety of electrode holders possible to use

•  variable geometries of WE possible to use (incl. typical RDE systems)

•  auxiliary gold electrode for under-potential working electrode submersion

•  precise 3-axis capillary positioning using microcamera offering high
reproducibility of results

•  controlled electrolyte volume in range from 0.05-30 mL

•  separation of CE compartment using a Nafion membrane

•  photoelectrocatalysis made possible through specially designed transparent cell parts

•  chemically resistant for both aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems

Electrochemical cells
Dual thin layer cell

•  pseudoreference electrode for compensation of the high ohmic losses, enabling running the experiments and accurate MS analysis even at rather high current densities -example: 8 mA.cm-2(geom) in aqueous electrolyte for OER at 5 mV.s-1.

•  laminar radial flow, optimal for total collection of products, ideal for precise Faradaic efficiency determinations

•  chemically resistant for both aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems, made of full PEEK body

Mass spectrometers
Pfeiffer Vacuum QMG 250 M1 PrismaPro Compact

LIQUIDLOOP assembles two types of Pfeiffer Vacuum mass spectrometers, possible to acquire only in parts through the conventional distribution channels of the original supplier. We assemble the spectrometers with optimal adjustments for purpose application in relation to electrocatalysis.


•    mass range 1-100 amu, suitable for small molecule detection,
•    low detection limit <100 ppb, even for condensable gases,
•    resolution adjustable at 10 % peak height 0.5 – 2.5 amu,
•    crossbeam ion source configuration is used to provide lower effect of background isotropic pressure, thus better signal detection.

Mass spectrometers
Pfeiffer Vacuum QMA 430

LIQUIDLOOP assembles two types of Pfeiffer Vacuum mass spectrometers, possible to acquire only in parts through the conventional distribution channels of the original supplier. We assemble the spectrometers with optimal adjustments for purpose application in relation to electrocatalysis.


•    mass range 1-300 amu, suitable for small and medium size molecule detection
•    high resolution and great peak separation performance and stable background.
•    Enhanced transmission of incoming gas between 35-50%,
•    Measurement speed up to 125 µs/amu,
•    Great stability over time, less frequently required sensor calibration
•    Crossbeam ion source configuration is used to provide lower effect of background isotropic pressure, thus better signal detection.

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Upgrade units


Extractors

Depending on the electrochemical reaction studied, you may need to change the extractor, unit responsiblefor the instantaneous separation of the gaseous andvolatile liquid molecules from a given liquid phase matrix.​Currently we provide extractors for water-basedelectrolytes. As of next year, the extractors suitablefor use with non-aqueous type electrolytes orcorrosive gases such as chlorine will be madeavailable as upgrade units.


Add-on tunable gas saturation units

The upgrades foresee additional units for mixing of multiple reactant gases with defined ratios, or mixing liquid and gaseous reactants.The additional units used for saturation of the electrolyte with toxic, flammable or corrosive gases (such as for example CO, CH4 or Cl2), can be decoupled from the system and placed under the fumehood.

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